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 [LESSON 1] VIETNAMESE ALPHABET

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Michelle_McClay
Language Translator
Language Translator


PostSubject: [LESSON 1] VIETNAMESE ALPHABET   Tue Jun 09, 2009 11:00 pm

Lesson 1: Vietnamese Alphabet


I. Aims of lesson:

After the lesson you will learn:

  1. The Vietnamese alphabet system and its pronunciation
  2. Learn more detail vowels, consonants, diphthongs, etc.
  3. Tones

II. Content:
1. Vietnamese alphabet system
There are 29 letters in the Vietnamese alphabet system which consists of 12 vowels and 17 consonants. See the list below:
Table 1
A a


Ă ă




B b


C c


Dd


Đ đ


E e




G g


H h


I i


K k


L l


M m

Nn


O o



Ơ ơ


P p


Q q


R r


S s


T t


U u


Ư ư


V v


X x


Y y


2. Vowels
As mentioned above, there are 12 vowels in the Vietnamese alphabet system. They are including:
Table 2
a


ă




e




i


o




ơ


u


ư


y



How to pronoun these vowels is to follow the below
Table 3
Front

Central

Back

High
i, y

ư [ɨ]

u [u]

Upper mid
[e]

[ə] / ơ [əː]

[o]

Lower mid
e [ɛ]

o [ɔ]

Low
ă [a] / a [aː]

Front, central, and low vowels (i, , e, ư, , ơ, ă, [i]a) are unrounded, whereas the back vowels (u, , o) are rounded. The vowels [ə] and ă [a] are pronounced very short, much shorter than the other vowels. Thus, ơ and are basically pronounced the same except that ơ [əː] is long while [ə] is short the same applies to the low vowels long a [aː] and short ă [a].
- Now turn back to the list, (table 2) listen and repeat
* Diphthongs and Tripthongs
In addition to single vowels (or monophthongs), Vietnamese has diphthongs and triphthongs. The diphthongs consist of a main vowel component followed by a shorter semivowel offglide to either a high front position [ɪ], a high back position [ʊ], or a central position [ə]. See the table below:
Table 4
Vowel nucleus

Diphthong with front offglide

Diphthong with back offglide

Diphthong with centering offglide

Tripthong with front offglide

Tripthong with back offglide

i

-

iu~yu [iʊ]

ia~i~y~ya [iə]

-

iu [iəʊ]








-

u [eʊ]

-

-

-







e

-

eo [ɛʊ]

-

-

-







ư

ưi [ɨɪ]

ưu [ɨʊ]

ưa~ươ [ɨə]

ươi [ɨəɪ]

ươu [ɨəʊ]








y [əɪ]

u [əʊ]

-

-

-







ơ

ơi [əːɪ]

-

-

-

-







ă

ay [aɪ]

au [aʊ]

-

-








a

ai [aːɪ]

ao [aːʊ]

-

-

-







u

ui [uɪ]

-

ua~u [uə]

ui [uəɪ]

-








i [oɪ]

-

-

-

-







o

oi [ɔɪ]

-

-

-

-







The centering diphthongs are formed with only the three high vowels (i, ư, u) as the main vowel. They are generally spelled as ia, ưa, ua when they end a word and are spelled i, ươ, u, respectively, when they are followed by a consonant. There are also restrictions on the high offglides: the high front offglide cannot occur after a front vowel (i, , e) nucleus and the high back offglide cannot occur after a back vowel (u, , o) nucleus.
The correspondence between the orthography and pronunciation is complicated. For example, the offglide [ɪ] is usually written as i however, it may also be represented with y. In addition, in the diphthongs [aɪ] and [aːɪ] the letters y and i also indicate the pronunciation of the main vowel: ay = ă + [ɪ], ai = a + [ɪ]. Thus, tay "hand" is [taɪ] while tai "ear" is [taːɪ]. Similarly, u and o indicate different pronunciations of the main vowel: au = ă + [ʊ], ao = a + [ʊ].
The four triphthongs are formed by adding front and back offglides to the centering diphthongs. Similarly to the restrictions involving diphthongs, a triphthong with front nucleus cannot have a front offglide (after the centering glide) and a triphthong with a back nucleus cannot have a back offglide.
With regards to the front and back offglides [ɪ, ʊ], many phonological descriptions analyze these as consonant glides /j, w/. Thus, a word such as đu "where" [ɗəʊ] would be /ɗəw/.
It is difficult to pronoun these sounds, you must listen and repeat carefully (table )
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Michelle_McClay
Language Translator
Language Translator


PostSubject: Re: [LESSON 1] VIETNAMESE ALPHABET   Fri Jul 24, 2009 10:36 pm

3. Consonant
The consonants that occur in Vietnamese are listed below in the Vietnamese orthography with the phonetic pronunciation to the right.
Table 5

Labial
Alveolar
Retroflex
palatal
Velar
Glottal
Stopvoiceless
p[p]
t [t]
tr [ʈʂ~ʈ]
ch [c~tɕ]
c/k [k]

aspirated
th [tʰ]




voiced
b
đ [đ]

d [ɟ]


Fricativevoiceless
ph [f]
x [s]
s [ʂ]

kh [x]
h [h]
voiced
v [v]
gi [z]
r [ʐ~ɹ]

g/gh [ɣ]

Nasal
m [m]
n [n]

nh [ɲ]
ng/ngh [ŋ]

Approximant
u/o [w]
l [l]

y/i [j]


Some consonant sounds are written with only one letter (like "p"), other consonant sounds are written with a two-letter disgrah (like "ph"), and others are written with more than one letter or digraph (the velar stop is written variously as "c", "k", or "q").
The tables below show detail and it may help you easier to understand
* There are 17 single consonants as listed below:
Table 6
Consonants
Sound
Phoneme
English equivalent sounds
b
/b/
but, bike
c
/k/
car, clean
d
/z/
zoo,
đ
/d/
do, does
g
/g/
go, get
h
/h/
hat, house
k
/k/
keep,
l
/l/
leaf, lose
m
/m/
meet, mouse
n
/n/
not, no
p
/p/
pipe, people
q
/k/
queen
r
/r/
run, road
s
/sh/
show, shower
t
/t/
tea, top
v
/v/
video, vowel
x
/s/
see, sea
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Michelle_McClay
Language Translator
Language Translator


PostSubject: Re: [LESSON 1] VIETNAMESE ALPHABET   Fri Jul 24, 2009 10:37 pm

Table 7
Consonants
Sound
Phoneme
English equivalent sounds
ch
/ts/
cheap
gh
/g/
ghost
gi
/j/
yes
kh
/x/
loch
nh
/ɲ/
canyon
ng
/ŋ/
sing
ngh
/ŋ/
single
ph
/f/
fine
th
/θ/
thin, theory
tr
/ʈʂ/
try
qu
/kw/
queen
* There are 8 final consonants:
Table 8
Consonants
Sound
Phoneme
English equivalent sounds
c
/k/
car
ch
/ts/
lunch
m
/m/
them
n
/n/
then
nh
/ɲ/
canyon
ng
/ŋ/
sing
p
/p/
stop
t
/t/
top
Now click the sounds again, listen and repeat carefully.
It is necessray to make a difference between these two sounds:
+) K vs. Kh
K & kh are two of the consonant symbols in the Vietnamese language. K is produced fortis and unaspirated. It is similar to the c in cat. In Vietnamese language it is similar to c and q. Perhaps one of the most common words beginning with k is kem which means ice cream and kẹo which means candy. 'Kh' is produced lenis voiceless dorsorelar spirant. The most common 'kh' word is khng which means no or not though there are less common meanings as well. Khỏe which means strong and healthy is another common word. To place khỏe khng after a personal referent is to enquire as to another's health - literally: you well no? as in bạn khỏe khng? Also in these times of fast food, the ubiquitous french fry is known as khoai ty chin meaning potato fry.
+) Ng and Ngh
The sound that ng and ngh make in Vietnamese is by far the hardest sound for Westerners to make. Ng and ngh simply make the last sound in "king" or "running (as long as you don't make the hard /g/ sound at the end). The problem arises when ng or ngh come at the beginning of a word, as the common family name Nguyễn clearly demonstrates. Here, the speaker has to isolate the /ŋ/ sound, which even many Western dictionaries don't recognize in their pronunciation guides. (Those that do tend to represent it as /ng/.) This lesson will help you to at least pronounce the /ŋ/ sound well enough for a native listener.
One thing you have to take a notice of is the combination of these above consonants Ng/ ngh with vowels. See below for detail:

a
ă
e
i
o
ơ
u
ư
y
Ngh



nghe
ngh
nghi






Ng
nga





ngo
ngơ
ng
ngu
ngư


  1. Ngh can only combine with the vowels which are started with i, e, .
  2. Ng can combine with vowels started with a, o, ơ, , u, ư.

Besides, Vietnamese has another pair of sound (g/ gh) which are all pronouned as /g/, for these consonants, there is also rule in combining with vowels.

a
ă
e
i
o
ơ
u
ư
y
g
ga




gi*
go
g
gu

gh



ghe
gh
ghi






- gh can only combine with vowel started with e, , i.
-g can go with vowel started with a, o, ơ, , u, ư.
* g can also go with i but in this case it will be pronoun as /j/, e.g. ci g.
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Michelle_McClay
Language Translator
Language Translator


PostSubject: Re: [LESSON 1] VIETNAMESE ALPHABET   Mon Aug 10, 2009 11:41 am

3. Tones
Vietnamese is a tonal language, It means that different voice inflections on any word will change the meaning of that word. For example, if you say ban with a rising tone, it means "sell," but if you say it with a falling tone, it means "table." Tone is the central part of a word
There are five tones in Vietnamese, plus a mid-level non-tone. Press each symbol button below to hear what each tone sounds like, and the name of the tone. Then press the word buttons to hear how one word can be pronounced with all six tones. Underneath is the English translation of each word.
Description Name of tonesSymbolSample word & meaning
Midrange voice goes flat and level.Ngang three
High risingSắcb to hug
Low fallingHuyền grandmother
Start in a low tone, go down and gently back upHỏi bane
Start high, bring voice down, cut off, and go back upNg residue
Bring voice down and cut off abruptly.Nặng haphazardly
Hnh minh họa
It is time to practice. Now listen and repeat carefully
1
Ba
B
B
Bả
B
Bạ
2
Ma
M
M
Mả
M
Mạ
3
Be
b
b
bẻ
bẽ
bẹ
4
Me
m
m
mẻ
mẽ
mẹ
5
Le
l
l
lẻ
lẽ
lẹ
* How to type Vietnamese on computer:
To use Vietnamese on your computer, you need to download Unikey and then choose vietnamese. You also need to follow this rule:
Letters
Tones
ă = a w
= a a
đ = d d
= e e
= o o
ơ = o w
ư = u w
Huyền = F
Sắc = S
Hỏi = R
Ng = X
Nặng = J
- The rest is to follow the normal rule.
Example:
Tiếng Việt = t i e e n g s v i e e t j
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